Disability – What does this mean?
Approximately one in ten people in Germany has a disability, about a quarter of whom are children and young people. But what forms of disabilities are there? Find out here what types of disabilities there.
How many people have a disability?
According to the data of the Federal Statistical Office from 2011 have 7.3 million people in Germany a disabled status. This corresponds to a population share of 8.9 percent. The results also made it clear that more people in advanced age from a disability suffered than younger people:
- 29.2 percent were older than 75 years
- 45.8 percent were between 55 and 75 years old
- 4 percent were under 25 years old
Display guide: Children with disabilities
Living with a disabled child brings many challenges and new tasks with it. The guide "Law and promotion for my disabled child" explains you what rights and promotion opportunities are there for the child yours.
type of disability
Disabilities can be very different type and origin. They are also not easy to differentiate. In some cases, multiple disabilities can coexist. Others prefer more about deterioration. Basically it assigns disabilities in the following categories:
- Physical disability: If a man is physically very limited, it is called a physical disability. This restriction is caused by damage to or dysfunction of the musculoskeletal system. Polio is the most common physical disability in children.
- Mental disability: In an ongoing, well above average limitation in cognitive abilities, it is called a mental disability. On the cognitive abilities include perception, attention, thinking and learning and memory, motivation and concentration. Intellectual disabilities such as Down syndrome include, in accordance with physical disabilities, the most common types of injury.
- Sensory disabilities: The sensory disability serves as an umbrella term for groups all hearing and visual impairments such as hearing loss, deafness, blindness, refractive errors and deafblindness together.
- Speech impediment: The speech impediment is the general term for disorders of language acquisition, the voice of speech and fluency. Speaking impaired people can use their native language is not age appropriate usually in volume and / or writing.
- Mental disability: From a mental or emotional disability one summarizes deviations in behavior and experience together. However, one speaks mostly of mental illnesses that affect the thoughts, feelings and actions of a person. A known mental illness in children, for example, ADHD.
- Learning disability: A learning disability means a lasting and comprehensive learning impairment. Statements about the frequency of learning disabilities are difficult to make because they are not included in the statistics on disability as such.
Cause of disability
A disability can also be assigned in terms of their cause, depending on whether it is innate or developed after birth. Congenital disabilities are either chromosomally, caused by the inheritance process or caused by a prenatal, existing before the birth injury. Disabilities, however, occur after the birth can arise through the birth process, illness, physical injury or the aging process. According to the Census Bureau, the disabilities were caused by:
- 83.4 percent by disease
- At 4.1 percent, the disability was congenital or occurred during the first year of life
- At 1.9 percent due to an accident or occupational disease
- 0.6 percent by damage in the war, military or civil service