Female sterilization

Female sterilization is a frequently used method to prevent pregnancy permanently. In its course the fallopian tubes are severed. This prevents that eggs can enter the uterus. Inform yourself here how exactly the sterilization of a woman runs out and what risks it entails.

When a couple decides to permanently prevent pregnancy, both the man and the woman sterilization can undergo. In the vasectomy in men, the vas deferens are cut at the tubal sterilization of the fallopian tubes is prevented in women through the separation that her egg can be fertilized. About 30% of German women who have completed their family planning opt for tubal sterilization. You want you keep informed about other birth control methods? In our area "prevention" we have you summarized the most common methods:

Like the female sterilization procedure?

In the female sterilization is a major surgical procedure that is performed usually under general anesthesia. The operation is usually performed on an outpatient basis today, on request or at any pre-existing conditions can also be made stationary. The procedure is always preceded by a thorough examination by the attending gynecologist, in which the internal organs are examined with ultrasound. In addition, a complete blood count is made.

In the actual operation that takes an average of 45 minutes to 1 hour, the engagement can be carried out either by laparoscopy or laparotomy. But the latter is rare and occurs more likely in combination with a Caesarean section or other operations used in the context of the abdominal cavity must be opened anyway.

In the laparoscopy is through a small incision below the navel an optical device, the so-called laparoscope is inserted into the abdominal cavity. Using this small video camera, the surgeon during surgery can observe exactly what he is doing. Before the actual female sterilization is made, the abdominal cavity is filled with CO2 gas to span the abdominal wall and to facilitate the view of the surgeon. The surgical tools needed to pass through further cuts in the abdominal area to the fallopian tubes. Often an instrument is inserted into the vagina even, the uterus can be moved by the course of operation.

The real female sterilization can be carried out in different ways. The fallopian tubes are closed, either by being welded by heat or electricity. but they can be cut with one cut. In rare cases, a piece of the fallopian tube is cut or equal to these completely removed. All methods have the effect that the woman is infertile, because the egg can not reach the womb and no more sperm in the fallopian tubes.

Prior to the conclusion of the surgical drainage is placed into the abdominal cavity in many cases, so that the resulting wound fluid can drain from there. The tube can, just like the threads of the suture are pulled, when the wound healing process is somewhat advanced. This is usually the case after a few days.

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What are the risks in the female sterilization?

Since it is in the female sterilization compared to vasectomy in men to a major surgical procedure, it is also associated with significantly more potential complications.

  • During surgery, for example, adjacent organs, tissues or nerves can be inadvertently injured, which may lead to bleeding, paralysis or numbness. The function of the bladder can be temporarily affected.
  • If the treated tissue is scarred, the continuing problems can result.
  • In rare cases, it can lead to serious complications such as a bowel obstruction or peritonitis come.
  • Although the surgery usually will not affect the hormone balance; of the menstrual cycle is maintained, only the length and intensity can be changed if necessary. However, if the peritoneal tissue hurt that the supply structure of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes is during surgery, the deficiency can cause blood to premature onset of menopause.

For these reasons, it is important to deal before the procedure in detail with the partner with the possible consequences. Also, a detailed informed consent discussion with the doctor is essential before sterilization. There is also the possibility to obtain information from various counseling centers on the consequences of the intervention and to clarify the long-term impact on family planning again.

How reliable is female sterilization?

Female sterilization is considered very effective way to prevent pregnancy permanently. The Pearl Index, which tracks the safety of a contraception method is the tubal sterilization at 0.2-0.3. This means that only about one in 500 women operated in spite of the intervention is still fertile. By comparison, the Pearl Index of the pill is 0.1 to 0.9.

In rare cases it happens that the fallopian tubes are passable again by again growing together or opening the closed place. However, a subsequent fertilization results in about 30% of the cases to a fallopian tube or ectopic pregnancy, which can not be discharged.

Can a woman can make the sterilization reversed?

Unlike male sterilization a tubal sterilization is actually irreversible, that is, not be reversed. However, the latest medical techniques offer the chance to possibly restore the fertility again. However, this process can be carried out via an abdominal incision and is associated with protracted microsurgical procedures that can not perform every surgeon. The chances of success of such an intervention are highly dependent on the used method of sterilization.

Many women suffer after sterilization under the finality of the procedure. Not infrequently, therefore, has a tubal sterilization psychological problems. Even so a detailed consultation and intensive study of the consequences before sterilization are so important. Many doctors recommend a sterilization not also before the age of 35.

How much is female sterilization?

The cost can vary from physician to physician, but amounts usually to about 700 euros. Since 2004, the cost of treatment for sterilization are not covered by health insurance. Only if absolutely medically necessary, such as when a pregnancy or childbirth pose a significant health risk or to expect a serious impairment of the child, both the private and statutory health insurance companies cover the cost of the intervention. Serves the tubal sterilization only family planning, interested parties have to bear the costs themselves. However, the statutory health insurance companies in general, the cost for the preparation and follow-up as well as any necessary medicines or sick leave.


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